Assessing the Effect of Floods and Impounding Reservoir of Karun 4 Dam on the Morphological Change of Armand River in the Past Decade (2005-2015)

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ferdowsi university of Mashhad/ Water Engineering Department

2 Associate Professor, Water Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University

3 Associate Professor, Water Engineering Department, Shahrekord University

4 Expert of Water Resource Research Center (WRRC), Shahrekord University


Evaluating the changes in river morphology, as one the most important fields in river engineering, plays a vital role for rivers upstream of large dams. Increasing our knowledge and understanding of the river’s behavior could help us to mitigate and reduce the possible impacts of the changing river morphology to water structures and public infrastructure. Therefore, in this study morphological changes in the Armand River which originated from basin of the Northern Karun and finally entered into the Karun 4 Dam, have been discussed. In this study fourteen selected images of Landsat OLI and TM acquired from 2005 to 2015 mostly in summer were used. The riverbank migration patterns and the changes of width and sinuosity resulted from accretion/erosion processes for 10 years and two biggest floods in this time were also investigated. The results indicated that the bank line movement rate lead erosion (accretion) on the right and left bank as 15 (14), 10 (12) percentage of average river width, respectively. It was also found that changes of net area rate (ha/years) for right and left bank was 0.11 and 0.74, respectively. The results obtained from flood data showed that generally in both banks of the river the erosion area was more than accretion and right bank is more active than the left bank. The results also showed that, the branch of the river that reach as Karun4 reservoir had the most increase in sinuosity for all the years studied. These indicated that Karoun4 dam construction caused surprisingly increasing changes in the morphology of the River up to the 3.5 km upstream of the reservoir entrance section.


شرکت توسعه منابع آب و نیروی ایران، (1388). گزارش اولین آبگیری سد کارون 4 ، شرایط اجرا، سناریوی آبگیری و ریسک­ها. ص. 108.
علوی پناه، س.ک.، (1394). اصول سنجش از دور نوین و تفسیر تصاوی ماهواره‌ای و عکس‌های هوایی. چاپ دوم. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران. ص. 780.
Archana Sarkar, R. D. Garg and Nayan Sharma, (2012). “RS-GIS based assessment of river dynamics of Brahmaputra river in India”. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2012, 4, pp. 63-72
Das, J.D., Dutta, T. and Saraf, A.K., (2007). “Remote sensing and GIS application in change detection of the Barak River channel, NE India”. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 35(4), pp. 301-312.
Feyisa, G.L., Meilby, H., Fensholt, R. and Proud, S.R., (2014). “Automated water extraction index: A new technique for surface water mapping using Landsat imagery”. Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, pp. 23-35.
Fisher, A., Flood, N. and Danaher, T., (2016). “Comparing Landsat water index methods for automated water classification in eastern Australia”. Remote Sensing of Environment, 175, pp. 167-182.
Ji, L., Zhang, L. and Wylie, B., (2009). “Analysis of dynamic thresholds for the normalized difference water index”. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 75(11), pp. 1307-1317.
Hossain .Md.A., Gan T.y and Baki. A, (2013), “Assessing morphological changes of the Ganges River using satellite images”. Quaternary International 304. 142-155.
Kusimi, J.M, (2008). “Stream processes and dynamics in the morphology of the Densu river channel in China”. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Part B8.
Manjusree. P, Satyanarayana. P, CM. Bhatt, Sharma. SVSP and Srinivasa Rao. G, (2015). “River sensing and GIS for river morphology studies”. Remote Sensing Applications Area, National Remote Sensing Centre ISRO, Department of Space, Hyderabad - 500 037.
NASA (2006). “Landsat 7 science data users handbook”,, 2006.
Pardo-Pascual, J.E., Almonacid-Caballer, J., Ruiz, L.A. and Palomar-Vázquez, J., (2012), “Automatic extraction of shorelines from Landsat TM and ETM+ multi-temporal images with subpixel precision”. Remote Sensing of Environment, 123, pp. 1-11.
Rozo, M.G., Nogueira, A.C. and Castro, C.S., (2014). “Remote sensing-based analysis of the planform changes in the Upper Amazon River over the period 1986–2006”. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 51, pp. 28-44.
Wang, J.J. and Lu, X.X., 2010. “Estimation of suspended sediment concentrations using Terra MODIS: an example from the Lower Yangtze River, China.” Science of the Total Environment 408, 1131-1138.
Xu, H., 2006. “Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery”. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27: 3025-3033.