Experimental Study of 3D Flow Field and Scour in a 90 Degree Bend

Document Type : Research Article



Flow is affected by both the pressure gradient and the centrifugal forces in the bend of rivers and their
interaction leads to secondary flow. In this study the flow field and scour in a 90 degree bend were
experimentally measured. Experiments were carried out in a channel with mild curvature. A threedimensional
Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used for measuring the flow field. Also, a
laser bed profiler was used for measuring the variation of bed topography. The results show formation
of a main secondary flow in the bend and another second secondary flow near the outer bank. The
direction of the second secondary flow is opposite to the direction of the main secondary flow. This
flow pattern is evident from the middle sections of the first half of the bend up to the end of the bend.
The results of flow pattern and bed scour were also addressed. In addition, the vortices in the bend, the
changes in the secondary flow and the vortices and the scour pattern at the outer bank and
sedimentation at the inner bank are investigated.