Numerical investigation of labyrinth stepped spillways’ performance on energy dissipation of skimming flow

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 University of Zanjan, Zanjan, 45371 - 38791, Iran

2 Department of Civil Engg., University of Zanjan

Abstract

One of the main characteristics of stepped spillways is energy dissipation along the spillway during the flow transmission. This research is to propose a new form of spillways’ steps in order to achieve the maximum level of energy dissipation. In this paper flow hydraulics affected by geometric reform of steps to labyrinths with trapezoidal, triangular and rectangular shapes is investigated numerically using FLOW-3D model. The results show that production of flow interferences during flow passing over the labyrinth shapes is the main achievement of labyrinth stepped spillway. Also, trapezoidal labyrinth shape shows a better performance in accessing the maximum energy dissipation. In the same flow condition the rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal labyrinth shaped stepped spillways are effective in flow velocity reduction by 4.62%, 12.21% and 23.76% and also in more energy dissipation by 5.6%, 13.1% and 17% respectively compared to the usual flat stepped spillway. This is because of streamline interference and increasing the resistance against the flow and also the extension of recirculating region and production of more rotational flow. These types of spillways have fewer amounts of the residual head than that for flat stepped spillways. The residual head ratio (Hres/yc) in this type of spillway is ~2.57 while it is ~4.32 in the flat stepped spillway. Finally one can find these types of spillways as next generation of stepped spillways which increases the efficiency and hydraulic performance.

Keywords


Beheshti, M.R. Khosrojerdi, A. and Sedghi, H. (2015). Experimental Evaluation of Turbulence Parameters Distribution in Two Phase Air-water Flows on Stepped Spillways. Water and Soil Science, 25(1), 53-65. (In Persian).
Chanson, H. (1994). State of the Art of the Hydraulic Design of Stepped Chute Spillways. ­Hydropower and Dams Journal. 33-42.
Chanson, H. (2001). Hydraulic design of stepped spillway and downstream energy dissipators. Dam Eng.11, 205–242.
Chen, Q. Dai, G. and Liu, H. (2002). Volume of fluid  model for  turbulent  numerical  simulation  of  stepped  spillway overflow. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ASCE. 128(70), 683-688.
Chow, V. T. (1959). Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.
Christodoulou, G. C. (1993). Energy dissipation on stepped spillways.  Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 119(5), 644-650.
Daneshfaraz, R. Joudi, A. R. Ghahramanzadeh, A. and Ghaderi, A. (2016). Investigation of flow pressure distribution over a stepped spillway. Advances and Applications in Fluid Mechanics. 19(4), 811–822.
Daneshfaraz R, Ghahramanzadeh A, Ghaderi A, Joudi AR, Abraham J (2016) Investigation of the Effect of Edge Shape on Characteristics of Flow under Vertical Gates. Journal‐American Water Works Association, 108(8): 425-432.
Daneshfaraz, R., and Ghaderi, A. (2017). Numerical Investigation  of  Inverse  Curvature  Ogee Spillway,
Civil Engineering Journal, 3(11), 1146-1156.
Daneshfaraz, R., Minaei, O., Abraham, J., Dadashi, S., and Ghaderi, A. (2019). 3-D Numerical simulation of water flow over a broad-crested weir with openings. ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 1-9.
Felder, S. and Chanson, H. (2009). Energy dissipation, flow resistance and gas-liquid interfacial area in skimming flows on moderate slope stepped spillways. Environ. Fluid. 427–441.
Felder, S. Guenther, P.h. and Chanson, H. (2012). Air-water flow properties and energy dissipation on stepped spillways: a physical study of several pooled stepped configurations. No. CH87/12. School of Civil Engineering, the University of Queensland.
Felder, S. Guenther, P.h., Chanson, H. (2012a). Air-water flow properties and energy dissipation on stepped spillways­. School of Civil Engineering the University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD4072, Australia. Report CH87/12.
Felder, S. Guenther, P.h. Chanson, H. (2012b). Air entrainment and energy dissipation on a 8◦/9◦slope stepped spillway with flat and pooled steps. School of Civil Engineering. The University of Queensland Brisbane QLD 4072. Australia. Report CH86/12.
Flow Science. (2016). Incorporated: FLOW-3D uers manual. Version 11.2. Santa Fe, NM, USA.
Ghaderi, A. Dasineh, M. and Abbasi, S. (2019). Impact of Vertically Constricted Entrance on Hydraulic Characteristics of Vertical Drop (Numerical Investigation). Journal of Hydraulics. 13(4), 121-131.
Ghaderi, A. Abbasi, S., Abraham, J. and Azamathulla, H.M.‌ (2020a).‌ Efficiency of trapezoidal labyrinth shaped stepped spillways. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 72, 101711.
Ghaderi, A. Dasineh, M., Abbasi, S. and Abraham, J. (2020b). Investigation of trapezoidal sharp-crested side weir discharge coefficients under subcritical flow regimes using CFD. Applied Water Science, 10(1), 31.
Ghaderi, A. and Abbasi, S. (2019). CFD simulation of local scouring around airfoil-shaped bridge piers with and without collar. Sādhanā, 44(10), 216.
Gonzalez. C. A. and Chanson, H. (2007). Hydraulic design of stepped spillways and downstream energy dissipaters for embankment dams. Dam Engineering, 17(4), 223-244.
Haji Azizi, S. Samadi, A. and Salmasi, F. (2016).  Numerical Study of Flow on Stepped Spillway and Its Comparison with Experimental Results. Water and Soil Science, 26(2-1), 155-165. (In Persian).
Hamedi, A. Mansoori, A. Malekmohamadi, I. Roshanaei, H. (2011). Estimating energy dissipation in stepped spillways with reverse inclined steps and end sill. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. Bearing Knowl Sustain. ASCE.
Heydari Orojlo, S.  Mousavi Jahromi, S.H. and Adib, A. (2011). Influence of the steeped spillway slope on the number of optimal steps. Journal of Irrigation Sciences and Engineering 33(2), 127-140. (In Persian).
Jam, Mahboobe  Talebbeydokhti, N.and Mardashti, A. (2014). Evaluation of Energy Dissipation over Dentate Blocks Spillway and Comparing the Energy Dissipation with Stepped Spillway. Journal of Hydraulics. 9(2), 1-10. (In Persian).
Kanaanie, S.M.  Fazloula, R.  Emadi, A. and Taghavi, J. (2016). The Effect of Flow on Stepped Spillway Walls of the Arch Parameters. Journal of Engineering and construction Management, 1(3), 12-15. (In Persian).
Khatsuria, R. M. (2005). Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators. Marcel Dekker, New york.
Rezapour Tabari, M. and Tavakoli, S. (2016). Effects of Stepped Spillway Geometry on Flow Pattern and Energy Dissipation. Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering (Springer Science & Business Media BV). 41(4), 216-227.
Mardashti, A.  Talebbeydokhti, N. and Javan, M. (2008). Energy Loss Evaluation of Two Phase Over- Flow of Stepped Spillway with Downstream Scour Depth Method. Journal of Hydraulics. 2(4), 1-22. (In Persian).
Moayeri, M.M. Hosseinzadeh Dalir, A.  Samasi, F. Farsadizadeh, D. and Sadraddini, A.A. (2013). 2D Simulation of Flow over Stepped Spillways with Turbulent Models and Comparing the Results with Physical Model. Water and Soil Science, 23(1), 1-14. (In Persian).
Morovati, K. Eghbalzadeh, A. and Soori, S. (2016). Study of Energy Dissipation of Pooled Stepped Spillways. Civil Engineering Journal. 2(5), 208-220.
Mondardo, J. M. Fabiani, A. L. (1995). Comparison of Energy Dissipation between Nappe and Skimming Flow Regimes on Stepped Chutes. Journal of Hydraulic Research. 33(1), 119-122.
Nohani, E. bahadoribirgani, B. Jalili, D. and Mirazizi, S. (2015). Study the Effect of The Number of Steps on Energy Dissipation of Stepped Spillways in Non-Nappe or Skimming Flow. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences. 4(9), 932-939.
Nikseresht, A. H. Talebbeydokhti, N. and Rezaei, M. J. (2013). Numerical simulation of two-phase flow on step-pool spillways. Scientia Iranica. 20(2), 222-230.
Peyras, L. Royet, P. and Degoutte, G. (1991). Flows and dissipation of energy on gabion weirs. J. Houille Blanche. No. 1, 37-47.
Peyras, L. Royet P. and Degoutte, G. (1992). Flow and Energy Dissipation over Stepped Gabion Weirs. Journal of hydraulic Engineering, 118(5), pp. 707-717.
Rajaratnam, N. (1990). Skimming flow in stepped spillway. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 116(4), 487-591.
Rice C.  E. and Kadavy, K.  C. (1996). Model Study of a Roller Compacted Concrete Stepped Spillway. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 122(6), 292–297.
Shahheydari, H. Nodoshan, E. J. Barati, R., and Moghadam, M. A. (2015). Discharge coefficient and energy dissipation over stepped spillway under skimming flow regime. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. 19(4), 1174-1182.
Sorensen, R.  M. (1985). Stepped spillway hydraulic model investigation. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 111(12), 1461-1472.
Tabbara, M. Chatila, J. and Awwad, R. (2005). Computational simulation of flow over stepped spillways. Comput. Struct.83, 2215–2224.
Tongkratoke, A. Chinnarasri, C. Pornprommin, A. Dechaumphai, P. and Juntasaro, V. (2009). Non-linear turbulence models for multiphase recirculating free-surface flow over stepped spillways. Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn 23(5), 401–409.
Zahabi, H. Torabi, M. Alamatian, E. Bahiraei, M. Goodarzi, M. (2018). Effects of Geometry and Hydraulic Characteristics of Shallow Reservoirs on Sediment Entrapment. Water, 10(12), 1725.
  • Receive Date: 17 June 2018
  • Revise Date: 22 April 2019
  • Accept Date: 21 July 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 November 2019