Modification of the Velocity Profiles of Turbulent Flow of Water Using Polymeric Solutions; Experimental Investigation

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Faculty of chemical and petroleum engineering, Razi university, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Academic staff/ Faculty of oil and petrochemical Eng., Razi University, Iran

3 Academic staff/ faculty of chemical and petroleum engineering, Razi university, Kermanshah, Iran

Abstract

Low concentration of drag reducing agents have found their efficient applications to reduce required
energy of the pipeline turbulent flow transportation. These additives can effect on turbulent structures,
and can modify velocity profile, and thus they cause to reduction of the skin friction of the flow. In the
present study, two commercially available copolymer of polyacrylamide with different molecular
weights, were employed to study the possible impact of different concentrations of the polymers on
pressure drop reduction of turbulent flow of water in pipeline. The obtained results demonstrated that
both the copolymer showed high drag reduction along with low degradation rate for 2hr of the
experimentation. Addition of 30ppm of the high molecular weight polymer to turbulent flow showed
54% drag reduction. Following the drag reduction measurement, turbulent velocity profiles for the
optimum concentration of the two polymers were obtained by using laser Doppler velocimetry
technique. The results showed a tendency to laminarization of the flow supported with low amounts of
Reynold stresses and velocity fluctuations in the presence of the polymer. In all the cases, the effects
of the higher molecular weight polymer on the velocity profiles of the turbulent flow is more desirable
than lower molecular weight one.

Keywords


Bizotto, V. C. Sabadini, E. (2008). "Poly(ethylene oxide) × polyacrylamide. Which one is more efficient to promote drag reduction in aqueous solution and less degradable?", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 110(3), pp. 1844-1850.
Blatch, N. S. (1906). "Water Filtration at Washington", Trans. A.S.C.E, 57, pp. 400-408.
Boutoudj, M. S. Ouibrahim, A. Barbeu, F. Deslouis, C. Martemianov, S. (2008). "Local shear stress measurements with microelectrodes in turbulent flow of drag reducing surfactant solutions", Chem. Eng. Process., 47(5), pp. 793-798.
Choi, H. J. Kim, C. A. Sohn, J.-I. Jhon, M. S. (2000). "An exponential decay function for polymer degradation in turbulent drag reduction", Polym. Degrad. Stab., 69(3), pp. 341-346.
De Gennes, P. (1986). "Towards a scaling theory of drag reduction", Physica A, 140(1-2), pp. 9-25.
Edomwonyi-Otu, L. Chinaud, M. Angeli, P. (2015). "Effect of drag reducing polymer on horizontal liquid–liquid flows", Exp. Therm Fluid Sci., 64, pp. 164-174.
Eshrati, M. Al-Hashmi, A. Al-Wahaibi, T. Al-Wahaibi, Y. Al-Ajmi, A. Abubakar, A. (2015). "Drag reduction using high molecular weight polyacrylamides during multiphase flow of oil and water: a parametric study", J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 135, pp. 403-409.
Guan, X.-L. Yao, S.-Y. Jiang, N. (2013). "A study on coherent structures and drag-reduction in the wall turbulence with polymer additives by TRPIV", Acta Mech. Sin., 29(4), pp. 485-493.
Hong, C. H. Choi, H. J. Zhang, K. Renou, F. Grisel, M. (2015). "Effect of salt on turbulent drag reduction of xanthan gum", Carbohydr. Polym., 121, pp. 342-347.
Japper-Jaafar, A. Escudier, M. P. Poole, R. J. (2009). "Turbulent pipe flow of a drag-reducing rigid “rod-like” polymer solution", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 161(1–3), pp. 86-93.
Kähler, C. J. Scharnowski, S. Cierpka, C. (2012). "On the uncertainty of digital PIV and PTV near walls", Exp. Fluids, 52(6), pp. 1641-1656.
Karami, H. R. Mowla, D. (2012). "Investigation of the effects of various parameters on pressure drop reduction in crude oil pipelines by drag reducing agents", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 177–178, pp. 37-45.
Karami, H. R. Mowla, D. (2013). "A general model for predicting drag reduction in crude oil pipelines", J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 111, pp. 78-86.
Karami, H. R. Keyhani, M. Mowla, D. (2016). "Experimental analysis of drag reduction in the pipelines with response surface methodology", J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 138, pp. 104-112.
Karami, H. R. Rahimi, M. Ovaysi, S. (2018a). "Degradation of drag reducing polymers in aqueous solutions", Korean J. Chem. Eng., pp. 1-10.
Karami, H. R. Rahimi, M. Ovaysi, S. (2018b). "Modification of Turbulent Flow Velocity Profiles Using Small Concentrations of Diluted Polymeric Solution ", The 10th International Chemical Engineering Congress & Exhibition (IChEC 2018) Isfahan, Iran, pp.
Kim, C. A. Kim, J. T. Lee, K. Choi, H. J. Jhon, M. S. (2000). "Mechanical degradation of dilute polymer solutions under turbulent flow", Polymer, 41(21), pp. 7611-7615.
Kim, K. Islam, M. Shen, X. Sirviente, A. Solomon, M. (2004). "Effect of macromolecular polymer structures on drag reduction in a turbulent channel flow", Phys. Fluids, 16(11), pp. 4150-4162.
Li, C.-F. Sureshkumar, R. Khomami, B. (2006). "Influence of rheological parameters on polymer induced turbulent drag reduction", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 140(1–3), pp. 23-40.
Lumley, J. L. (1969). "Drag reduction by additives", Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 1(1), pp. 367-384.
Manzhai, V. N. Nasibullina, Y. R. Kuchevskaya, A. S. Filimoshkin, A. G. (2014). "Physico-chemical concept of drag reduction nature in dilute polymer solutions (the Toms effect)", Chem. Eng. Process., 80, pp. 38-42.
Pereira, A. S. Soares, E. J. (2012). "Polymer degradation of dilute solutions in turbulent drag reducing flows in a cylindrical double gap rheometer device", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 179–180, pp. 9-22.
Pereira, A. S. Andrade, R. M. Soares, E. J. (2013). "Drag reduction induced by flexible and rigid molecules in a turbulent flow into a rotating cylindrical double gap device: Comparison between Poly (ethylene oxide), Polyacrylamide, and Xanthan Gum", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 202, pp. 72-87.
Pinho, F. T. Li, C. F. Younis, B. A. Sureshkumar, R. (2008). "A low Reynolds number turbulence closure for viscoelastic fluids", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 154(2), pp. 89-108.
Ptasinski, P. Nieuwstadt, F. Van Den Brule, B. Hulsen, M. (2001). "Experiments in turbulent pipe flow with polymer additives at maximum drag reduction", Flow Turbul. Combust., 66(2), pp. 159-182.
Rahimi, M. Akbari, M. H. Karami, H. R. (2015). "Investigation of drag reduction in microtube", paper presented at The 9th International Chemical Engineering Congress & Exhibition (IChEC 2015)At: Shiraz, Iran.
Reis, L. G. Oliveira, I. P. Pires, R. V. Lucas, E. F. (2016). "Influence of structure and composition of poly(acrylamide-g-propylene oxide) copolymers on drag reduction of aqueous dispersions", Colloids Surf., A, 502, pp. 121-129.
Sandoval, G. A. B. Soares, E. J. (2016). "Effect of combined polymers on the loss of efficiency caused by mechanical degradation in drag reducing flows through straight tubes", Rheol. Acta, 55(7), pp. 559-569.
Sohn, J. I. Kim, C. A. Choi, H. J. Jhon, M. S. (2001). "Drag-reduction effectiveness of xanthan gum in a rotating disk apparatus", Carbohydr. Polym., 45(1), pp. 61-68.
Tian, H. Zhang, J. Wang, E. Yao, Z. Jiang, N. (2015). "Experimental investigation on drag reduction in turbulent boundary layer over superhydrophobic surface by TRPIV", Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett., 5(1), pp. 45-49.
Toms, B. A. (1949). "Some observations on the flow of linear polymer solutions through straight tubes at large Reynolds numbers", Proc. of the International Congress on Rheology, pp. 135-141.
Virk, P. S. (1975). "Drag reduction fundamentals", AlChE J., 21(4), pp. 625-656.
Werther, J. Hage, B. Rudnick, C. (1996). "A comparison of laser Doppler and single-fibre reflection probes for the measurement of the velocity of solids in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed", Chem. Eng. Process., 35(5), pp. 381-391.
White, C. M. Mungal, M. G. (2008). "Mechanics and Prediction of Turbulent Drag Reduction with Polymer Additives", Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 40(1), pp. 235-256.
White, C. M. Mungal, M. G. (2008). "Mechanics and prediction of turbulent drag reduction with polymer additives", Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 40, pp. 235-256.
Wyatt, N. B. Gunther, C. M. Liberatore, M. W. (2011). "Drag reduction effectiveness of dilute and entangled xanthan in turbulent pipe flow", J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 166(1–2), pp. 25-31.
Xueming, S. Jianzhong, L. Tao, W. Yulin, L. (2002). "Experimental research on drag reduction by polymer additives in a turbulent pipe flow", Can. J. Chem. Eng., 80(2), pp. 293-298.
  • Receive Date: 24 June 2018
  • Revise Date: 12 October 2018
  • Accept Date: 14 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 21 January 2019