Numerical Investigation of Leakage from Steel Pipes Submerged in Water Based on the Experimental Results of Non-submerged Pipes

Document Type : Research Article


1 Ph.D. Student, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Center of Excellence for Engineering and Management of Civil Infrastructures, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 M.Sc., Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Tehran, Iran.


Few studies are made about the effect of environmental conditions on the leakage flow rate. Some of these researches show that environmental conditions play an important role in leakage flow rate. On the contrary, there are other researches opposing this idea. The purpose of this research is to investigate evidence of the effect of environmental conditions on leakage flow rate. Based on this idea, some tests were carried out in the college of engineering at the university of Tehran, using a circular experimental set up at high pressure discharging to the atmosphere. Various ranges of pressure up to 50 m of water were imposed on a 110 mm diameter aged steel pipe with some holes on the pipe surface. In the next step, by using the experimental results, an analytical model in ANSYS software was developed and outputs were compared with experimental data. Later a proper mathematical turbulent model was derived. Furthermore, the effect of submerged conditions was investigated by this appropriate numerical model. The results of this research showed that static pressure fluctuations in submerged jet had significant effect on discharge and the rate of leakage was reduced in comparison with atmospheric discharge. According to the results, pressure reduction in 5 m head pressure could affect the leakage discharge under submerged condition up to 55 percent when compared with the case of discharging to the atmosphere. With pressures above 20 m, smaller changes were observed. These changes were limited to less than 10 percent. The aforementioned reduction depended on the imposed head of water at leakage point and pressure value inside the pipe. Finally, a relationship between leakage outflow and internal pressure of pipe was proposed.


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  • Receive Date: 15 March 2016
  • Revise Date: 25 February 2017
  • Accept Date: 08 March 2017
  • First Publish Date: 08 March 2017