Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Propagation and Wave Breaking over Impermeable Submerged Breakwater

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor of Hydraulic Structures, Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Marine Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Hydraulic Structures, Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran


In this research, the wave propagation and periodic wave breaking process over an impermeable submerged breakwater is studied experimentally and numerically. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the hydraulics laboratory, school of engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus. For the current study, deployed a space-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and laboratory experiments to investigate the time-dependent wave breaking processes are. The developed model is based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) method which is a pure Lagrangian approach and can handle large deformations of the free surface with high accuracy. Then, a weakly compressible version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (WCSPH) method together with a large eddy simulation (LES) approach are used to simulate the wave propagation and periodic wave breaking process over an impermeable submerged breakwater. The results of numerical simulations were compared qualitatively with those of laboratory experiments. Overall, good agreement was found between them. Also, the results of present numerical model were compared with the numerical model of Rambabo and Mani (2005). The results show, that WCSPH computations produce better results than those of Rambabo and Mani (2005), with respect to the experimental data. The results of this study also show that WCSPH method provides a useful tool to investigate the wave propagation over submerged breakwaters.


محمودی، ا.، (1393). " مدل هیدرودینامیک ذرات هموار اصلاح شده دو بعدی جهت بررسی عملکرد موج­شکن مستغرق ذوزنقه­ای نفوذ ناپذیر تحت امواج منظم"، رساله دکتری، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی سهند تبریز.
Abdul Khader, M.H., Rai, S.P., (1980). "A study of submerged breakwaters", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 18: 2, 113–121.
Cao, Y.G., Jiang, Ch.B., and Bai, Y.Ch., (2010). "Numerical study on flow structure near two impermeable trapezoid submerged breakwaters on slop bottoms", 9th International Conference on Hydrodynamics October 11-15, Shanghai, China.
Crespo, A.J.C., (2008). "Application of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model SPHysics to free-surface hydrodynamic", PhD Thesis, Universidad de Vigo.
Garcia N., Lara J.L., and Losada I.J., (2004). "2-D numerical analysis of near-field flow at low-crested permeable breakwaters", Coastal Engineering, 51, 991–1020.
Carević, D., Pršić, M., and Ocvirk, E., (2009). "Modelling of wave interaction with submerged breakwater using MIKE 21 BW", International Symposium on Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering, Ohrid/Macedonia.
Christou, M.,  Swan, C., and Gudmestad, O.T., (2008). "The interaction of surface water waves with submerged breakwaters", Coastal Engineering, 55, 945–958.
Dalrymple, R.A., and Rogers, B.D., (2006). "Numerical modeling of water waves with the SPH method", Coastal Engineering, Vol 53, pp 141 –147.
Goda, Y., and Suzuki, Y., (1976), "Estimation of incident and reflected waves in random wave experiments", In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, Hawaii, USA, pp.828–845.
Hsu, T.W., Hsieh, Ch.M., and Hwang, R., (2004). "Using RANS to simulate vortex generation and dissipation around impermeable submerged double breakwaters", Coastal Engineering, 51, 557–579.
Huang, C.J., Chang, H.H., and Hwung, H.H., (2003). "Structural permeability effects on the interaction of a solitary wave and a submerged breakwater", Coastal Engineering, 49, 1 –24.
Jeon, Ch.H., and  Cho, Y.S., (2006). "Bragg reflection of sinusoidal waves due to trapezoidal submerged breakwaters", Ocean Engineering, 33, 2067–2082.
Jie, Ch., Changbo, J., Shixiong, U.,  and Wenwei, H., (2010). "Numerical study on the characteristics of flow field and wave propagation near submerged breakwater on slope", Acta Oceanol. Sin., Vol.29, No.1, p.88-99.
Johnson, H.K., Karambas, T.V., Avgeris, I., Zanuttigh, B., Marco, D.G., and Caceres, I., (2005). "Modelling of waves and currents around submerged breakwaters", Coastal Engineering, 52, 949– 969.
Kim, N.H., Kim, S.R., and Ko, H.S., (2010). "Numerical simulation of wave transmission over a submerged breakwater in wave flume by using SPH method", The 2010 KSCE Annual Conference, Incheon, Korea, pp. 2289-2292.
Liu, X.,  Xu, H., Shao, S., and  Lin, P., (2013). "An improved incompressible SPH model for simulation of wave–structure interaction", Computers & Fluids, Vol 71, pp113–123.
Lo, E., and Shao, S., (2002). "Simulation of near-shore solitary waves mechanics by an incompressible SPH method", Applied Ocean Research, Vol 24, pp 275–286.
Losada, I.J., (2001). "Recent advances in the modeling of wave and permeable structure interaction", Advances in Coastal and Ocean Eng., 7, 163–202.
Mansouri, A. and Aminnejad, B., (2014). "Interaction of submerged breakwater by a solitary wave using WCSPH method", Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Vol. 2014, Article ID 524824.
Monaghan, J.J., (1992). "Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics", Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 30, pp 543–574.
Monaghan, J.J., (1994). "Simulating free surface flows with SPH", Journal Computational Physics , Vol 110, pp 399–406.
Monaghan, J.J., (2005). "Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics", Reports on Progress in Physics, 68: 1703-1759.
Rambabu, A.Ch., and Mani, J.S., (2005). "Numerical prediction of performance of submerged breakwaters", Ocean Engineering, 32, 1235–1246.
Shen, Y.M., Ng, C.O. and Zheng, Y.H., (2004). "Simulation of wave propagation over a submerged bar using the VOF method with a two-equation  turbulence modeling", Ocean Engineering, 31, 87–95.
 Wendland, H., (1995). "Piecewiese polynomial, positive definite and compactly supported radial functions of minimal degree", Advances in Computational Mathematics, Vol 4, pp 389– 396.
Xu, R., (2010). "An improved incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and its application in free-surface simulations", PhD Dissertation, University of Manchester, UK
  • Receive Date: 06 March 2016
  • Revise Date: 07 January 2017
  • Accept Date: 14 January 2017
  • First Publish Date: 14 January 2017